独立主格

特点

• 逻辑主语与句子主语不同

• 与主句间不连词

• 后面接 adj. adv. doing. done. to do.

用法

1. 时间状语

The work done(=After the work had been done)

2. 条件状语

Weather permitting(If weather permits)

3. 原因状语

An important lecture to be given tomorrow(=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow)

4. 伴随状语

his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head)

5. 补充说明

his face red with cold(=and his face was red with cold

形式

1. 名词 / 代词 + 不定式

A house to be built, we must save every cent.

由于要建一座房子,我们必须节省每一分钱。

Now here is Li Lei, Wei Fang to come tomorrow.

现在李蕾来了,魏方明天到。

2. 名词 / 代词 + -ing分词

The bus coming here soon, we should get everything ready.

汽车很快就要来了,我们应该把一切事情准备好。

Mother being ill, Li Lei was very worried.

母亲病了,李蕾非常焦急。

3. 名词 / 代词 + 动词的过去分词

His cup broken, he used his bowl instead.

茶杯破了,他就用碗来代替。

4. 名词 / 代词 + 形容词

The ground muddy, we should be careful.

地面泞泥,我们应该小心。

5. 名词 / 代词 + 副词

The class over, we all went out to play. 下课后,我们都出去玩。

6. 名词 / 代词 + 介词短语

Glasses in his hand, he asked where his glasses were.

手里拿着眼镜,他问他的眼镜哪去了。

7. 名词主格代词+being having been+名词形容词副词/介词(being 为动作正在进行的被动,having been done 发生在谓语动词之前)

注意

1. being./having been. 不可省略的情况

• 逻辑主语是代词

• There being.

2. having been done. 不作定语,having done. 不作定语,但是 being done. 可以

泛指或非限制性定语从句没有限制

Anyone having passed the test has got a prize.(对)

Charlie, having lived in Paris for years, decided to return to London. (对)

The building having been built is our schoo.(错)

4. 过去分词不能作主语

5. 形容词除了原因状语,一般情况下不加 being.;过去分词表示状态时一般也不加being.

Being ill,I stayed at home.(正确)

Ill,I stayed at home.(正确)

6. 非谓语动词必须是修饰主语

做法

1. 没有先后顺序:主动用 doing. 被动用 done.

2. 动作谓语之前:主动用 having done. 被动用 having been done.

having done. = after doing.

having been done. = after being done.

3. 动作在进行:主动用 doing. 被动用 being done.

4. 动作在将来:to do.

被动的选择

1. 表示状态时只能用 done 。

2. being done 是正在被做,一般情况不可以与 done 互换,除形容词做原因状语。

3. having been done 是动作发生在谓语之前,一般可以与 done 互换。