• 后面接 adj. adv. doing. done. to do.
The work done(=After the work had been done)
Weather permitting(＝If weather permits)
An important lecture to be given tomorrow(=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow)
his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head)
his face red with cold(=and his face was red with cold
1. 名词 / 代词 + 不定式
A house to be built, we must save every cent.
Now here is Li Lei, Wei Fang to come tomorrow.
2. 名词 / 代词 + -ing分词
The bus coming here soon, we should get everything ready.
Mother being ill, Li Lei was very worried.
3. 名词 / 代词 + 动词的过去分词
His cup broken, he used his bowl instead.
4. 名词 / 代词 + 形容词
The ground muddy, we should be careful.
5. 名词 / 代词 + 副词
The class over, we all went out to play. 下课后，我们都出去玩。
6. 名词 / 代词 + 介词短语
Glasses in his hand, he asked where his glasses were.
7. 名词主格代词+being having been+名词形容词副词/介词（being 为动作正在进行的被动，having been done 发生在谓语动词之前）
1. being./having been. 不可省略的情况
• There being.
2. having been done. 不作定语，having done. 不作定语，但是 being done. 可以
Anyone having passed the test has got a prize.（对）
Charlie, having lived in Paris for years, decided to return to London. （对）
The building having been built is our schoo.（错）
5. 形容词除了原因状语，一般情况下不加 being.；过去分词表示状态时一般也不加being.
Being ill,I stayed at home.（正确）
Ill,I stayed at home.（正确）
1. 没有先后顺序：主动用 doing. 被动用 done.
2. 动作谓语之前：主动用 having done. 被动用 having been done.
having done. = after doing.
having been done. = after being done.
3. 动作在进行：主动用 doing. 被动用 being done.
4. 动作在将来：to do.
1. 表示状态时只能用 done 。
2. being done 是正在被做，一般情况不可以与 done 互换，除形容词做原因状语。
3. having been done 是动作发生在谓语之前，一般可以与 done 互换。