定语从句关系代词辨析

一、which 和 that 辨析
1. 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which:
The current, which is very rapid, makes the river dangerous. 水流湍急,使这条河很危险。
He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like. 他得在星期天工作,他是不喜欢这样的。
The London team, which played so well last season, has done badly this season. 伦敦队上一个季度打得很好,这个季度却打得很差。
2. 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which:
She may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her. 她可能晚到,那样我们就要等等她。
The documents for which they were searching have been recovered. 他们找寻的文件已找到了。
This morning some port wine came, for which I have to thank you. 今天早上送来一些波尔图葡萄酒,为此我得向你道谢。
注:有时“介词+which”引导的定语从句可以转换成“介词+which+不定式”结构:
He had only the long nights in which he could study. =He had only the long nights in which to study. 他只有漫漫长夜可用来学习。
He had a couple of revolvers with which he could defend himself.= He had a couple of revolvers with which to defend himself. 他只有一两把手枪用来自卫。
3. 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that:
All that she lacked was training. 她缺的只是训练。
Have you everything that you need? 你需要的东西都有了吗?
The sleeping man’s subconscious mind retained everything that was said around him. 这位酣睡的人头脑的下意识能记住他周围的人说的话。
She would never do anything that was not approved of by her parents. 她父母不赞同的事她绝不会做。
4. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that:
This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。
Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。
5. 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that:
This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。
The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。
6. 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that:
China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。
7. 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that:
They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。
8. 当要避免重复时:
Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?

二、who 的情况
1. 当先行词是persons, people, those时。例如:
Those who are for my plan , please put up your hands.同意我的计划的人请举手。
Persons who are quarrelsome are despised.好争者被轻视。
2. 当先行词是he, one, all, any, they等时,例如:
He who has not reached the Great Wall isn’t a true man. 不到长城非好汉。
All who had seen this film were moved.看过这部电影的人都受感动。
3. 在非限定性定语从句中用who。例如:
I want him, who knows some English and French. 我要他,他懂得些英语和法语。
I will pardon you, who are honest. 我愿意宽恕你,你是诚实的。
4. 在强调句型中多用who,在口语中who可以省略。例如:
I think it is you who should come here tomorrow.我认为你明天应该来这儿。
It is he who can do this work. 只有他能够干此工作。

三、that 的情况
1. 当关系代词在从句中作表语时用that。例如:
She is not the woman that she used to be.她已经不是过去的她了。
China is not the country that it used to be.中国已经不是过去的中国了。
2. 避免重复。例如:
Who was it the man that you danced with last night? 昨天晚上和你一起跳舞的那个人是谁?
Who is it the girl that often comes to school early? 常常早到校的那个女孩是谁?
3. 当先行词前面有指示代词same时,要用that。例如:
That is the same woman that spoke at the meeting yesterday.这个与昨天在会议上讲话的是同一个人。
He is the same person that killed that woman.他就是杀害那位妇女的人。
4. 当先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:
He was watching the children and parcels that filled the car.他望着塞满车的孩子和包裹。
Let’s talk about the persons and the things that we can remember.让我们谈论能够想起的人和事。
5. 当先行词前面有形容词最高级、序数词或only等词修饰时。例如:
I knew her father for the simplest, hardest working man that ever drew the breath of life. 我早知她的父亲是一个世上最简朴最努力工作的人。