Should 虚拟语气

1. 用于if引导的虚拟条件句中
在表示与现在或将来事实相反的非真实条件句中,谓语动词形式可用“should + do”。如:
If she should refuse, they could be greatly disappointed.
【考例】 This printer is of good quality. If it _______ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense. (2009年,天津)
A. would B. should
C. could  D. might

2. 用于省略if的倒装句中
如果条件状语从句的谓语动词中含有should,可以省略连词if,而把should放在主语前构成倒装。如:
Should he fail in the examination, he would have to wait for another year.
【考例】 ______ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. (2006年,湖北)
A. Would you be
B. Should you be
C. Could you be
D. Might you be

3. 用于主语从句中
在“It is +形容词/某些动词的过去分词 + that从句”的结构中,从句的谓语动词用“(should) + do ”虚拟语气形式来表示命令、要求和建议。这些形容词和过去分词常见的有important(重要的)、essential(必要的)、necessary(必须的)、natural(自然的)、decided(决定的)、ordered(命令的)、demanded(要求的)、proposed(建议的)、required(要求的)等。如:
It is necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.
【考例】 It is essential that all these figures ________ twice.  (2008年,四川联考)
A. check            B. checked
C. are checked       D. be checked

4. 用于宾语从句中
表示主观判断、推测、建议、命令和要求的动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词常采用“(should) + do”的形式。这类动词包括advise(劝告), ask(要求), insist(坚持), order(下令), suggest(建议), command(命令), demand(要求), require(要求)等。
He insisted that a deadline (should) be set for completing the task.
【考例】 The doctor recommended that you ______ swim after eating a large meal.(2009年, 浙江)
A. wouldn’t  B. couldn’t
C. needn’t  D. shouldn’t
【疑难辨析】 动词insist如不表示要求,而表示“坚持己见”时,宾语从句用陈述语气。同样,当suggest所表示的意思为“表明”或 “暗示”时,谓语动词也不采用“should + do”的形式。如:
Jane insisted that she had done nothing wrong and that she should be treated properly.
The surprised look on his face suggested that he did not believe the fact.

【巧记速记】
常见动词后的宾语从句中需用“(should) + do”虚拟语气有:
一个坚持:insist
两个命令:order, command
三个建议:suggest, advise, propose
四个要求:demand, require, ask, desire

注意:在以it为形式宾语的复合宾语从句中也可以用虚拟语气,其形式为“(should) + do”。这一句型中使用的形容词(宾补)与主语从句中的虚拟语气所使用的形容词相同。如:
We think it advisable that he (should) think deeply before acting.
5. 用于表语(或同位语)从句中
在表示命令、建议、劝告等含义的名词后面的表语(或同位语)从句中,谓语动词须用“(should) + do”的形式。这些名词包括advice(忠告), decision(决定), demand(要求), desire(渴望), idea(想法), proposal(提议), recommendation(推荐), requirement(要求), suggestion(建议)等。如:
I make a proposal that we(should) hold a meeting next week.
【考例】 Their requirement that he ______ one year’s experience is reasonable.(2009年, 蚌埠市三质检)
A. had   B. has
C. have   D. would have
6. 用于目的状语从句中
由in case, lest, for fear that引导的目的状语从句,谓语动词用“(should) + do”结构,表示忧虑或目的。其形式通常为“… lest (in case, for fear that) + 主语 + (should) + do”。如:
I will not make any noise, lest I should disturb you.
【考例】 The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he ______ himself.(2009,四川联考)
A.  injure   B. had injured
C.  injured  D. would injure


虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法

(1)在某些动词后面所跟的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,用于表示“建议、命令、要求”等。这时从句中谓语动词的形式为“should + 动词原形” , should 可省略。

常见此类动词有:determine , decide , order , command , insist , intend , move , prefer , propose , advise , recommend , suggest , ask , request , require , urge , demand , desire , direct 等。

He insisted that the meeting (should) be put off.

他要求推迟那个会议。

They proposed that all the plans(should) be discussed at the meeting.

他们建议所有的计划都应该在会议上讨论。

(2)在以 it 为形式宾语的宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法。

在表示“看法”的动词 consider , deem , think 等后以 it 为形式宾语的复合宾语从句中应用虚拟语气,其谓语动词形式为“ should + 动词原形”,should 可以省略。

We think it advisable that he (should) think deeply before acting.

我们认为他在行动之前好好考虑一下是明智的。

I consider it necessary that a meeting (should)be put into practice right away.

董事会认为这些规定应马上实施。

(3)动词 wish 后宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法

在 wish 后面的宾语从句中,谓语用动词的过去式表示对现在情况的假设;谓语用动词的过去完成时表示对过去情况的假设;谓语用“would/could/might + 动词原形”的形式表示对将来情况的假设。

I wish it were spring now.

我希望现在是春天。

I wish I could have been there last year.

我要是去年去过那里就好了。

(4)would rather 等后接的宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法

在 would rather/would sooner , would as soon , might as well 和 would prefer 等后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词应用过去式表示对现在或将来情况的虚拟;用 had done 形式表示对过去情况的虚拟,意为“宁愿,但愿”。

I’d rather he didn’t go now.

要是他现在不走就好了。

I would rather you came next weekend.

我宁愿你下周末过来。